Detailed explanation of lithium battery industry chain The Cost composition of Lithium ion Battery:
1. The cost of cathode material accounts for 30%.
2. The cost of anode material accounts for 10-20%
3, diaphragm costs account for 20-30%
4, electrolyte cost accounted for 15%
The mainstream of power lithium battery technology has not yet been settled.
1. Power battery cathode material: LFP (lithium iron phosphate) is the main domestic, LMO (lithium manganate) and NCM (nickel-cobalt-manganese ternary material) is the main Japanese and Korean, Tesla uses NCA (nickel-cobalt-aluminum); the development direction is high voltage, high energy, high power, wide temperature range. Lithium ferric phosphate has good low temperature performance and long cycle life. China has made great efforts in the past decade, but its energy density is a hard injury.
2, at present, the trend of NCM development is fiercest, but it is too early to say "mainstream". Cathode materials for consumer electronic batteries: LCO (lithium cobalt oxide), NMC (nickel manganese cobalt), NCA (nickel cobalt aluminum), LFP (lithium iron phosphate), LMO (lithium manganate); energy density and safety are required.
Significance: On the premise of maintenance cost, there is little room to improve the performance of graphite anode, mainly depending on the performance of positive electrode.
Negative electrode materials:
Carbon materials are the main materials with high industrial concentration.
1. Carbon materials are still the main anode materials, such as natural graphite, artificial graphite, mesophase carbon microspheres. Natural graphite resources in the upper reaches are becoming more and more scarce, and the proportion of synthetic graphite increases. However, the performance of graphite anode has approached the theoretical value of materials. In order to improve the energy density of the anode, lithium titanate (LTO), silicon-carbon composite anode materials, silicon alloy anode materials and other new varieties are being developed. However, new materials need to be solved in terms of technology and cost. Carbon materials will remain the mainstream in the next 2-3 years.
2, the global anode material industry has a high degree of concentration. Japan and China account for more than 90% of global negative materials. China's advantage is resources, and Japan's advantage is technology. The market share of China's Bethel and Shanshan shares is about 32%.
3, Japan gradually transfers the capacity of negative materials to China. In 2013, China's output of negative materials was 23 thousand tons, an increase of 20% over the same period last year.
In the long run, technological progress and import substitution are big stories.
1. The gross profit rate of lithium diaphragm is high, about 40%-50%. The main stream of the product is PE and PP diaphragm, which can be divided into dry and wet methods.
2. The technical barriers to the production of lithium battery diaphragms are relatively high, which require high equipment, production process design, product batch stability, and skilled workers.
3, there is still a big gap between the technology level of lithium separator and the global manufacturers.
Lithium battery, the four largest material, has the least capacity problem.
1, the price of diaphragm varies greatly because of its performance. Taking the domestic dry diaphragm as an example, the average market price is about 3.5 yuan per square meter at present. However, the products with the best quality of Star source materials can reach 5.5 yuan per square meter, and the products of small and medium-sized manufacturers with poor quality can reach 3 yuan per square meter.
2. In nominal terms, the capacity of lithium diaphragm in China is more than 200 million square meters, but the capacity of high-quality diaphragm is far less than this. The capacity of the world's major lithium battery separator manufacturers is about 50% of the existing capacity and will be put into operation in 14-15 years. Diaphragm production is expected to increase by 30-35% in the next few years.
3. Demand for lithium batteries has increased, and the number of diaphragms used for superimposed batteries has increased. The annual growth rate of diaphragm demand will remain at about 25%. Overall, the situation of excessive supply of diaphragm is not serious.
4, short-term concerns: improving product yield and consistency; preparation of composite diaphragm and functional diaphragm.
Six lithium fluoride phosphate capacity expansion, cost is good.
1. The main components of electrolyte are high-purity organic solvent, electrolyte lithium salt (lithium hexafluorophosphate) and related additives. The average output of 1 tons of electrolyte is about six tons of lithium fluoride, which is about 0.12 tons. The additive formula in the electrolyte is the core competitiveness of the electrolyte enterprise. It is generally the patent of the enterprise for adapting the working temperature of the lithium battery, enhancing the safety, specific energy and trial life of the lithium battery. Electrolyte enterprises in China have reached international technical level.
2. Domestic lithium hexafluorophosphate manufacturing technology breakthroughs, electrolyte manufacturers cost positive: in 2011, China's lithium hexafluorophosphate technology breakthroughs, water, hydrogen fluoride, metal impurities control technology progress, rapid expansion of production capacity, rapid reduction in imports, prices fell rapidly from 335 yuan / kg in 2010 to 132 yuan / kg in 2013 Kilo. At present, the production capacity of lithium hexafluorophosphate in China is nearly doubled by 2015, reaching 40% of the global production capacity of lithium hexafluorophosphate. Six fluorine lithium phosphate accounts for more than 40% of the cost of the electrolyte, and the price of raw materials has fallen well.