In June this year, Japan's new energy industry technology development agency will develop solid-state batteries with 23 automobile, battery and material enterprises, such as Toyota, Honda, Nissan and Panasonic, and plan to fully master the relevant technology of solid-state batteries by 2022.
On August 7, it was reported that researchers at Tokyo University of Technology and other institutions in Japan had developed all-solid-state batteries capable of charging and discharging at ultra-high speed, making significant progress in the practical application of solid-state batteries.
Compared with liquid state batteries, all solid state lithium batteries have more advantages in high density, high safety and high output power, and are expected to be the next generation of batteries to replace current lithium ion batteries. However, the technology of solid-state batteries is still far from perfect, and there is still a certain distance from practical application.
Highlight: High Nickel Batteries Become New Track
1. on the one hand, solid state batteries are not yet mature, but in high nickel batteries, China has lagged behind.
At present, graphite is widely used as the anode material of batteries, while the cathode material has many choices. However, in cathode materials, lithium iron phosphate has low energy density and is close to the ceiling. It is more suitable for commercial vehicles which do not require high energy density of batteries.
Ternary batteries have advantages in energy density ceiling, but they still depend on technological progress to improve the safety of batteries.
The ternary material is a layered nickel cobalt manganese acid composite material. According to the proportion of nickel, cobalt and manganese, ternary can be divided into 111, 523, 622, 811, etc. Because nickel is mainly used to enhance energy density, the current research and development focus of high nickel ternary materials (622 or 811) is focused on.
2. On the other hand, Although high nickel batteries can improve the energy density of batteries, they will reduce the safety and service life of batteries.
Since 2013, Tesla, which uses high energy density batteries, has experienced many spontaneous combustion incidents in the United States, Europe, China and other places. How to improve the safety and service life of high nickel batteries is a technical problem at present.
High nickel batteries need pure oxygen atmosphere when they are assembled, but most domestic batteries do not have this condition. If 811 ternary batteries are produced in large quantities, most of the plants and equipment need to be redesigned, which means a new round of large-scale investment is needed.
High cobalt prices and tight supply are also forcing battery companies to accelerate the production of high-nickel batteries with less cobalt content.
Furthemore, Korea is catching up with Japan in high nickel batteries. According to foreign media reports, Korean battery manufacturers LGChem and SKinnovation are expected to launch 811 ternary batteries with low cobalt content and high energy density for electric vehicles this year. But a few months later, these plans were delayed.
PS: current SINOLI offered Panasonic 18650 is 622 high nickel configuration ternary batteries, while high nickel 811 is using in 21700 is much expectable.