Safety problems of lithium power battery system

- Jan 01, 2017 -

The safety of power battery is one of the most concerned problems in the process of large-scale application of new energy vehicles. In this paper, the security problems and effective solutions of lithium ion power battery as a power supply system for vehicles are described.          

The security problem of power battery system is divided into 3 levels, namely "evolution", "trigger" and "expansion"". "Evolution" refers to the safety of the battery power before the accident, the fault may have experienced the long-term evolution of the process; the "trigger" is "a turning point in the evolution process, can also be a sudden destruction of power battery system, and lead to safety accident. The core problem of power battery safety accident is the thermal runaway of lithium ion power battery. Thermal runaway "trigger" occurs, should prevent the occurrence of thermal runaway "expansion".          

In addition to the aging of other components of the battery system, the evolution of the security of the battery itself is mainly manifested in the development of internal short circuit. The internal short circuit will experience a long period of growth before it happens". There are many reasons for the internal short circuit of lithium ion power battery, and one of the main reasons for the internal short circuit is the metal dendrite growth. The dendrite growth of metal can be obtained from the dissolution and re growth of transition metal (copper, iron, etc.) in the positive electrode of the battery. Defective battery design and production will facilitate the metal dendritic growth, such as a battery mixed in the manufacturing process of impurities, or battery pole piece assembly due to stress occurrence of folds, the metal dendrite growth more easily in the vicinity of impurities and folds. The precipitation and growth of lithium metal is also related to charging rate and charging temperature. High rate charge or low temperature charging may increase the possibility of lithium metal precipitation.

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