Three Levels Of Security Problems In Lithium Power Battery System

- Jan 01, 2017-

After the evolution process, the battery accident will enter the trigger phase. After entering the trigger phase in general, Li ion power battery internal energy will be released in an instant, this process is irreversible and uncontrollable, also known as thermal runaway (thermalrunaway). The temperature of the battery can be heated up to 1000 DEG C after thermal runaway, and smoke, fire and explosion can be observed.          


Of course, from the broad definition of security point of view, the battery safety accident, it may not happen thermal runaway. If the battery collision does not necessarily lead to thermal runaway; and the battery insulation caused by the failure of high voltage electric shock, leakage of battery odors caused by vehicle body discomfort and other circumstances, the battery will not lead to thermal runaway. In the safety design of power battery system, the above needs to be considered. The thermal runaway is the most common cause of the accident, but also the unique characteristics of the lithium ion power battery safety accident, after the evolution process, the battery accident will enter the "trigger" stage. After entering the trigger phase in general, Li ion power battery internal energy will be released in an instant, this process is irreversible and uncontrollable, also known as thermal runaway (thermalrunaway). The temperature of the battery can be heated up to 1000 DEG C after thermal runaway, and smoke, fire and explosion can be observed.          


Of course, from the broad definition of security point of view, the battery safety accident, it may not happen thermal runaway. If the battery collision does not necessarily lead to thermal runaway; and the battery insulation caused by the failure of high voltage electric shock, leakage of battery odors caused by vehicle body discomfort and other circumstances, the battery will not lead to thermal runaway. In the safety design of power battery system, the above needs to be considered. Thermal runaway is the most common cause of accidents in safety accidents, and is also a unique characteristic of safety accidents of lithium ion batteries.          


There are many reasons for the thermal runaway accident of lithium ion power battery, which can be divided into 3 categories: mechanical trigger, electrical trigger and thermal trigger. As shown in Figure 6, there are certain internal connections between the 3 types of triggers. Generally, the mechanical trigger may cause the short circuit and cause the electricity to trigger, but the electric spark produces the heat to cause the heat to trigger. The mechanism analysis of other trigger modes can not be separated from the study of thermal triggering mechanism.          


The mechanical trigger includes extrusion, acupuncture, drop and so on;          


Electrical triggering includes external short circuit, internal short circuit, over charge and over discharge;          


The utility model is characterized in that the battery continuously absorbs the heat in the environment and the temperature is increased.          


The safety testing standards provide a detailed breakdown of the various types of accident triggers. The probability of occurrence of the accident by the battery of safety testing standards is also greatly reduced. However, due to the actual operating conditions are very complex, the cause of the accident may be in accordance with the provisions of the safety testing standards.


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